FAQ
Hi Everyone,

I hope this isn't a duplicate issue but:

I have a number of goroutines that each download a url. After a certain
cutoff point (a timeout), main code execution moves on, leaving goroutines
that didn't finish basically hanging.

See: http://play.golang.org/p/OlPuERL2kQ

Doing this, I'm getting:
net/http.(*persistConn).writeLoop(0xc208351810)
         /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:945 +0x41d
created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
         /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:661 +0xcbc
panic: send on closed channel

I found an SO that suggests that resp.Body is probably causing the issue:
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25152030/panic-in-golang-http-client-with-high-concurrent-excecutions
But the SO doesn't specify the best way to fix this.

Is reading resp.Body the likely source of error?
What would be the best way to handle this?

Thanks,
Aki

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  • Lars Tørnes Hansen at Jan 20, 2015 at 2:13 pm
    Put 'defer resp.Body.Close()' in the top of the function, otherwise resp is
    not closed, if err != nil is true

    Den mandag den 19. januar 2015 kl. 17.38.20 UTC+1 skrev akib...@gmail.com:
    Hi Everyone,

    I hope this isn't a duplicate issue but:

    I have a number of goroutines that each download a url. After a certain
    cutoff point (a timeout), main code execution moves on, leaving goroutines
    that didn't finish basically hanging.

    See: http://play.golang.org/p/OlPuERL2kQ

    Doing this, I'm getting:
    net/http.(*persistConn).writeLoop(0xc208351810)
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:945 +0x41d
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:661 +0xcbc
    panic: send on closed channel

    I found an SO that suggests that resp.Body is probably causing the issue:
    http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25152030/panic-in-golang-http-client-with-high-concurrent-excecutions
    But the SO doesn't specify the best way to fix this.

    Is reading resp.Body the likely source of error?
    What would be the best way to handle this?

    Thanks,
    Aki
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  • Lars Tørnes Hansen at Jan 20, 2015 at 2:22 pm
    Has to correct myself:

    resp could of course be nil, so use this edited code:
    http://play.golang.org/p/FjSSZkysYF

    Den mandag den 19. januar 2015 kl. 17.38.20 UTC+1 skrev akib...@gmail.com:
    Hi Everyone,

    I hope this isn't a duplicate issue but:

    I have a number of goroutines that each download a url. After a certain
    cutoff point (a timeout), main code execution moves on, leaving goroutines
    that didn't finish basically hanging.

    See: http://play.golang.org/p/OlPuERL2kQ

    Doing this, I'm getting:
    net/http.(*persistConn).writeLoop(0xc208351810)
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:945 +0x41d
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:661 +0xcbc
    panic: send on closed channel

    I found an SO that suggests that resp.Body is probably causing the issue:
    http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25152030/panic-in-golang-http-client-with-high-concurrent-excecutions
    But the SO doesn't specify the best way to fix this.

    Is reading resp.Body the likely source of error?
    What would be the best way to handle this?

    Thanks,
    Aki
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  • James Bardin at Jan 20, 2015 at 2:28 pm

    On Tuesday, January 20, 2015 at 9:13:52 AM UTC-5, Lars Tørnes Hansen wrote:
    Put 'defer resp.Body.Close()' in the top of the function, otherwise resp
    is not closed, if err != nil is true
    No, Don't do that If err != nil, the Body will be nil, and the defer will
    panic.

    Den mandag den 19. januar 2015 kl. 17.38.20 UTC+1 skrev akib...@gmail.com:
    Hi Everyone,

    I hope this isn't a duplicate issue but:

    I have a number of goroutines that each download a url. After a certain
    cutoff point (a timeout), main code execution moves on, leaving goroutines
    that didn't finish basically hanging.

    See: http://play.golang.org/p/OlPuERL2kQ

    Doing this, I'm getting:
    net/http.(*persistConn).writeLoop(0xc208351810)
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:945 +0x41d
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:661 +0xcbc
    panic: send on closed channel
    Is this the entire stack trace? DO you have something that can can reliably
    reproduce the panic (preferably without using external web properties)?


    I found an SO that suggests that resp.Body is probably causing the issue:
    The OP there commented that it was because the Body wasn't being closed.

    Is reading resp.Body the likely source of error?
    What would be the best way to handle this?


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  • James Bardin at Jan 20, 2015 at 2:34 pm

    On Tuesday, January 20, 2015 at 9:22:09 AM UTC-5, Lars Tørnes Hansen wrote:
    Has to correct myself:

    resp could of course be nil, so use this edited code:
    http://play.golang.org/p/FjSSZkysYF
    This could be incorrect too. The response isn't guaranteed to be nil when
    there's an error, but the Body is.

    It's better to just follow the documented pattern of `defer
    resp.Body.Close()` if there is no error.

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  • James Bardin at Jan 20, 2015 at 3:37 pm

    On Monday, January 19, 2015 at 11:38:20 AM UTC-5, akib...@gmail.com wrote:
    Hi Everyone,

    I hope this isn't a duplicate issue but:

    I have a number of goroutines that each download a url. After a certain
    cutoff point (a timeout), main code execution moves on, leaving goroutines
    that didn't finish basically hanging.

    See: http://play.golang.org/p/OlPuERL2kQ
    Had a minute to check this out, and I don't see any reason for the panic
    here. Is this representative of the actual running code?


    A couple other issues though:

    If all articles download before the timeout, your loop will never exit
    until the timeout if there were any errors, since an error condition
    doesn't send to articleChan

    If urlsSlice is very long, you may exhausting some other resource. You may
    need to limit the number of simultaneous http or dns calls.

    You don't need to check for `resp == nil`. If the error nil, resp will be
    usable, and resp.Body is guaranteed to be non-nil.

    Your forceTimeout could be replaced with time.After (and don't defer
    closing the channel when another goroutine is sending on that channel, this
    will panic).

    You are setting client.Timeout. If you have sane timeouts in the transport
    too (see DefaultTransport), you may not need the extra timeout logic at
    all, since the client will cancel the request anyway.

    In your actual code, is it possible that you have clients stuck sending
    to articleChan? That would leave their respective response bodies open,
    since it doesn't hit the defer.





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  • Aki Balogh at Jan 20, 2015 at 5:54 pm


    Is this the entire stack trace? DO you have something that can can
    reliably reproduce the panic (preferably without using external web
    properties)?
    This is the trace of the running goroutine -- the one that caused panic. I
    can paste in an entire stack trace, but there are hundreds of goroutines,
    so it'd be a massive amount of text. (Let me know if you still want to see
    it.)

    Since I'm downloading URLs, I only have examples with external web
    properties.
    That said, here's some test code that you could run locally:
    http://play.golang.org/p/vYwxY8Svds

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  • Aki Balogh at Jan 20, 2015 at 5:59 pm

    Had a minute to check this out, and I don't see any reason for the panic
    here. Is this representative of the actual running code?
    This is an abstraction of the actual running code. See:
    http://play.golang.org/p/vYwxY8Svds


    A couple other issues though:

    If all articles download before the timeout, your loop will never exit
    until the timeout if there were any errors, since an error condition
    doesn't send to articleChan

    True. In my actual code, I have error channels as well.
    If urlsSlice is very long, you may exhausting some other resource. You may
    need to limit the number of simultaneous http or dns calls.
    Good point -- but I imagine go should be able to handle downloading a few
    hundred websites concurrently, right? Most of the time is spent waiting on
    the remote servers anyway.

    You don't need to check for `resp == nil`. If the error nil, resp will be
    usable, and resp.Body is guaranteed to be non-nil.
    What if the remote server returns an empty response?


    Your forceTimeout could be replaced with time.After (and don't defer
    closing the channel when another goroutine is sending on that channel, this
    will panic).
    True -- thanks -- I need to udpate that.


    You are setting client.Timeout. If you have sane timeouts in the transport
    too (see DefaultTransport), you may not need the extra timeout logic at
    all, since the client will cancel the request anyway.
    In the application, we have various types of timeouts. There are actually
    two timeouts -- an http timeout and a loop timeout -- but I simplified and
    used one in the code.

    In your actual code, is it possible that you have clients stuck sending
    to articleChan? That would leave their respective response bodies open,
    since it doesn't hit the defer.
    It could -- if main execution continues as the loop timeout is hit.
    Wouldn't it hit defer when the goroutine returns, even if main execution
    has moved on?

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  • James Bardin at Jan 20, 2015 at 6:33 pm

    On Tue, Jan 20, 2015 at 12:58 PM, Aki Balogh wrote:

    Good point -- but I imagine go should be able to handle downloading a few
    hundred websites concurrently, right? Most of the time is spent waiting on
    the remote servers anyway.
    It's not about what Go can handle, but what resources you are providing to
    the process. Each request could take more than one file descriptor, one for
    the dns query and one for the tcp connection. I don't think it's your
    problem here, but something to watch.


    You don't need to check for `resp == nil`. If the error nil, resp will be
    usable, and resp.Body is guaranteed to be non-nil.
    What if the remote server returns an empty response?

    What is an empty response? If it's a valid http response with no body, the
    response.Body will return 0 bytes. If the server closed the connection or
    sent something invalid, then you get an error.



    In your actual code, is it possible that you have clients stuck sending
    to articleChan? That would leave their respective response bodies open,
    since it doesn't hit the defer.
    It could -- if main execution continues as the loop timeout is hit.
    Wouldn't it hit defer when the goroutine returns, even if main execution
    has moved on?
    In this example code, the download goroutine can't return if nothing is
    receiving from articleChan. That send needs a synchronous receive on the
    other side. If you are leaking goroutines like this in the real code, you
    either need to buffer articleChan or receive from articleChan until all the
    download goroutines have returned.

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  • Aki Balogh at Jan 20, 2015 at 6:42 pm

    It's not about what Go can handle, but what resources you are providing
    to the process. Each request could take more than one file descriptor, one
    for the dns query and one for the tcp connection. I don't think it's your
    problem here, but something to watch.
    TY -- yes, I've been watching file descriptors.

    You don't need to check for `resp == nil`. If the error nil, resp will
    be usable, and resp.Body is guaranteed to be non-nil.
    What if the remote server returns an empty response?

    What is an empty response? If it's a valid http response with no body, the
    response.Body will return 0 bytes. If the server closed the connection or
    sent something invalid, then you get an error.
    Makes sense. I should just handle the case if resp.Body == 0 bytes.


    In your actual code, is it possible that you have clients stuck sending
    to articleChan? That would leave their respective response bodies open,
    since it doesn't hit the defer.
    It could -- if main execution continues as the loop timeout is hit.
    Wouldn't it hit defer when the goroutine returns, even if main execution
    has moved on?
    In this example code, the download goroutine can't return if nothing is
    receiving from articleChan. That send needs a synchronous receive on the
    other side. If you are leaking goroutines like this in the real code, you
    either need to buffer articleChan or receive from articleChan until all the
    download goroutines have returned.
    I am leaking goroutines. I've been assuming that they get GC'd eventually,
    but it's sloppy code.

    Buffering sounds like a good solution. Can you point me in the right
    direction of what to read up on?

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  • James Bardin at Jan 20, 2015 at 7:01 pm
    On Tue, Jan 20, 2015 at 1:42 PM, Aki Balogh wrote:
    Makes sense. I should just handle the case if resp.Body == 0 bytes.
    That's just up to you. If the lack of the body is an error condition for
    you, then handle it. It's perfectly valid for a server to not return an
    http body. Here you're also not checking the response.StatusCode to see if
    it's really what you want either.


    I am leaking goroutines. I've been assuming that they get GC'd
    eventually, but it's sloppy code.

    Buffering sounds like a good solution. Can you point me in the right
    direction of what to read up on?
    To be absolutely certain that all download goroutines can complete without
    a receiver on articleChan, you would have to make articleChan large enough
    to hold all responses. (http://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#channels)

         articleChan := make(chan string, len(urlsSlice))


    You're also not checking the error from reading the resp.Body. Again,
    probably not the issue here, but your response may not be what you think it
    is.

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  • Aki Balogh at Jan 20, 2015 at 8:35 pm


    I am leaking goroutines. I've been assuming that they get GC'd eventually,
    but it's sloppy code.

    Buffering sounds like a good solution. Can you point me in the right
    direction of what to read up on?
    To be absolutely certain that all download goroutines can complete without
    a receiver on articleChan, you would have to make articleChan large enough
    to hold all responses. (http://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#channels)

    articleChan := make(chan string, len(urlsSlice))


    You're also not checking the error from reading the resp.Body. Again,
    probably not the issue here, but your response may not be what you think it
    is.
    I made the articleChan channel larger, which seems to have reduced the
    overall number of panics. But I'm still seeing the same panics in
    transport.go, at writeLoop() and readLoop():


    goroutine 1494 [select]:
    net/http.(*persistConn).writeLoop(0xc2086722c0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:945 +0x41d
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:661 +0xcbc
    panic: send on closed channel

    goroutine 2604 [select]:
    net/http.(*persistConn).readLoop(0xc209c62bb0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:928 +0x9ce
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:660 +0xc9f
    panic: send on closed channel


    also seeing a new panic:

    goroutine 315 [IO wait]:
    net.(*pollDesc).Wait(0xc208011330, 0x77, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/fd_poll_runtime.go:84 +0x47
    net.(*pollDesc).WaitWrite(0xc208011330, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/fd_poll_runtime.go:93 +0x43
    net.(*netFD).connect(0xc2080112d0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x7fe9016b2a80, 0xc208563320,
    0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/fd_unix.go:114 +0x24b
    net.(*netFD).dial(0xc2080112d0, 0x7fe9016ac658, 0x0, 0x7fe9016ac658,
    0xc208294870, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/sock_posix.go:139 +0x37a
    net.socket(0x7f8490, 0x3, 0x2, 0x1, 0x0, 0xc208294800, 0x7fe9016ac658, 0x0,
    0x7fe9016ac658, 0xc208294870, ...)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/sock_posix.go:91 +0x422
    net.internetSocket(0x7f8490, 0x3, 0x7fe9016ac658, 0x0, 0x7fe9016ac658,
    0xc208294870, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x1, ...)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/ipsock_posix.go:137 +0x148
    net.dialTCP(0x7f8490, 0x3, 0x0, 0xc208294870, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/tcpsock_posix.go:156 +0x125
    net.dialSingle(0x7f8490, 0x3, 0xc20813f160, 0x15, 0x0, 0x0, 0x7fe9016ac5f0,
    0xc208294870, 0x0, 0x0, ...)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/dial.go:235 +0x3f5
    net.func·016(0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/dial.go:163 +0x12c
    net.dial(0x7f8490, 0x3, 0x7fe9016ac5f0, 0xc208294870, 0xc2085d7b08, 0x0,
    0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, ...)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/fd_unix.go:40 +0x6f
    net.(*Dialer).Dial(0xc2085e60c0, 0x7f8490, 0x3, 0xc20813f160, 0x15, 0x0,
    0x0, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/dial.go:170 +0x4be
    net.Dial(0x7f8490, 0x3, 0xc20813f160, 0x15, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/dial.go:143 +0x8a
    net/http.(*Transport).dial(0xc208052000, 0x7f8490, 0x3, 0xc20813f160, 0x15,
    0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:481 +0xcf
    net/http.(*Transport).dialConn(0xc208052000, 0x0, 0xc208162058, 0x4,
    0xc20813f160, 0x15, 0x1, 0x0, 0x0)
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:564 +0x1678
    net/http.func·019()
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:520 +0x42
    created by net/http.(*Transport).getConn
             /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:522 +0x335
    panic: send on closed channel

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  • James Bardin at Jan 20, 2015 at 10:01 pm
    I don't think you're looking at the right goroutines here. Usually the
    `panic: message` line is first, followed by the stack trace. For example,
    the following two stacks are in [select], but neither of those select cases
    include a send operation, and can't be source of the "panic: send on a
    closed channel".

    Is this really the output you see at the top of the stack trace? Are you
    recovering from any panics in your code already? Feel free to send me a
    full stack trace off-list if you want.


    goroutine 1494 [select]:
    net/http.(*persistConn).writeLoop(0xc2086722c0)
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:945 +0x41d
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:661 +0xcbc
    panic: send on closed channel

    goroutine 2604 [select]:
    net/http.(*persistConn).readLoop(0xc209c62bb0)
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:928 +0x9ce
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:660 +0xc9f
    panic: send on closed channel

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  • Nigel Tao at Jan 20, 2015 at 11:21 pm

    On Tue, Jan 20, 2015 at 3:38 AM, wrote:
    I have a number of goroutines that each download a url. After a certain
    cutoff point (a timeout), main code execution moves on, leaving goroutines
    that didn't finish basically hanging.
    Does the race detector give any leads?
    https://blog.golang.org/race-detector and
    https://golang.org/doc/articles/race_detector.html

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  • Aki Balogh at Jan 21, 2015 at 3:59 pm
    James,

    You're absolutely right -- I was reading the error file incorrectly. The
    panics I was seeing came from elsewhere in the code.

    I made the suggested changes, and also fixed a separate issue, and am
    seeing no panics now.

    Thank you for your help!

    Aki

    On Tue, Jan 20, 2015 at 5:01 PM, James Bardin wrote:

    I don't think you're looking at the right goroutines here. Usually the
    `panic: message` line is first, followed by the stack trace. For example,
    the following two stacks are in [select], but neither of those select cases
    include a send operation, and can't be source of the "panic: send on a
    closed channel".

    Is this really the output you see at the top of the stack trace? Are you
    recovering from any panics in your code already? Feel free to send me a
    full stack trace off-list if you want.


    goroutine 1494 [select]:
    net/http.(*persistConn).writeLoop(0xc2086722c0)
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:945 +0x41d
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:661 +0xcbc
    panic: send on closed channel

    goroutine 2604 [select]:
    net/http.(*persistConn).readLoop(0xc209c62bb0)
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:928 +0x9ce
    created by net/http.(*Transport).dialConn
    /root/.gvm/gos/go1.4rc2/src/net/http/transport.go:660 +0xc9f
    panic: send on closed channel

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