According to John Porter:
Yall might want to see what the smart guys on ACE have to say about
template instantiation and how some compilers (such as "older" gcc)
have trouble with it, at:


although the particular error they've hit doesn't seem to be quite
the same as the one above.
The G++ documentation has a detailed description of the various
template-instantiation approaches that work with G++, and their
advantages and disadvantages. Unfortunately, I don't think it's
up on the web right now. Hence I shall misuse the list thusly:

@node Template Instantiation
@section Where's the Template?

@cindex template instantiation

C++ templates are the first language feature to require more
intelligence from the environment than one usually finds on a UNIX
system. Somehow the compiler and linker have to make sure that each
template instance occurs exactly once in the executable if it is needed,
and not at all otherwise. There are two basic approaches to this
problem, which I will refer to as the Borland model and the Cfront model.

@table @asis
@item Borland model
Borland C++ solved the template instantiation problem by adding the code
equivalent of common blocks to their linker; the compiler emits template
instances in each translation unit that uses them, and the linker
collapses them together. The advantage of this model is that the linker
only has to consider the object files themselves; there is no external
complexity to worry about. This disadvantage is that compilation time
is increased because the template code is being compiled repeatedly.
Code written for this model tends to include definitions of all
templates in the header file, since they must be seen to be

@item Cfront model
The AT&T C++ translator, Cfront, solved the template instantiation
problem by creating the notion of a template repository, an
automatically maintained place where template instances are stored. A
more modern version of the repository works as follows: As individual
object files are built, the compiler places any template definitions and
instantiations encountered in the repository. At link time, the link
wrapper adds in the objects in the repository and compiles any needed
instances that were not previously emitted. The advantages of this
model are more optimal compilation speed and the ability to use the
system linker; to implement the Borland model a compiler vendor also
needs to replace the linker. The disadvantages are vastly increased
complexity, and thus potential for error; for some code this can be
just as transparent, but in practice it can been very difficult to build
multiple programs in one directory and one program in multiple
directories. Code written for this model tends to separate definitions
of non-inline member templates into a separate file, which should be
compiled separately.
@end table

When used with GNU ld version 2.8 or later on an ELF system such as
Linux/GNU or Solaris 2, or on Microsoft Windows, g++ supports the
Borland model. On other systems, g++ implements neither automatic

A future version of g++ will support a hybrid model whereby the compiler
will emit any instantiations for which the template definition is
included in the compile, and store template definitions and
instantiation context information into the object file for the rest.
The link wrapper will extract that information as necessary and invoke
the compiler to produce the remaining instantiations. The linker will
then combine duplicate instantiations.

In the mean time, you have the following options for dealing with
template instantiations:

Compile your template-using code with @samp{-frepo}. The compiler will
generate files with the extension @samp{.rpo} listing all of the
template instantiations used in the corresponding object files which
could be instantiated there; the link wrapper, @samp{collect2}, will
then update the @samp{.rpo} files to tell the compiler where to place
those instantiations and rebuild any affected object files. The
link-time overhead is negligible after the first pass, as the compiler
will continue to place the instantiations in the same files.

This is your best option for application code written for the Borland
model, as it will just work. Code written for the Cfront model will
need to be modified so that the template definitions are available at
one or more points of instantiation; usually this is as simple as adding
@code{#include <tmethods.cc>} to the end of each template header.

For library code, if you want the library to provide all of the template
instantiations it needs, just try to link all of its object files
together; the link will fail, but cause the instantiations to be
generated as a side effect. Be warned, however, that this may cause
conflicts if multiple libraries try to provide the same instantiations.
For greater control, use explicit instantiation as described in the next

Compile your code with @samp{-fno-implicit-templates} to disable the
implicit generation of template instances, and explicitly instantiate
all the ones you use. This approach requires more knowledge of exactly
which instances you need than do the others, but it's less
mysterious and allows greater control. You can scatter the explicit
instantiations throughout your program, perhaps putting them in the
translation units where the instances are used or the translation units
that define the templates themselves; you can put all of the explicit
instantiations you need into one big file; or you can create small files

#include "Foo.h"
#include "Foo.cc"

template class Foo<int>;
template ostream& operator <<
(ostream&, const Foo<int>&);
@end example

for each of the instances you need, and create a template instantiation
library from those.

If you are using Cfront-model code, you can probably get away with not
using @samp{-fno-implicit-templates} when compiling files that don't
@samp{#include} the member template definitions.

If you use one big file to do the instantiations, you may want to
compile it without @samp{-fno-implicit-templates} so you get all of the
instances required by your explicit instantiations (but not by any
other files) without having to specify them as well.

g++ has extended the template instantiation syntax outlined in the
Working Paper to allow forward declaration of explicit instantiations
and instantiation of the compiler support data for a template class
(i.e. the vtable) without instantiating any of its members:

extern template int max (int, int);
inline template class Foo<int>;
@end example

Do nothing. Pretend g++ does implement automatic instantiation
management. Code written for the Borland model will work fine, but
each translation unit will contain instances of each of the templates it
uses. In a large program, this can lead to an unacceptable amount of code

Add @samp{#pragma interface} to all files containing template
definitions. For each of these files, add @samp{#pragma implementation
"@var{filename}"} to the top of some @samp{.C} file which
@samp{#include}s it. Then compile everything with
@samp{-fexternal-templates}. The templates will then only be expanded
in the translation unit which implements them (i.e. has a @samp{#pragma
implementation} line for the file where they live); all other files will
use external references. If you're lucky, everything should work
properly. If you get undefined symbol errors, you need to make sure
that each template instance which is used in the program is used in the
file which implements that template. If you don't have any use for a
particular instance in that file, you can just instantiate it
explicitly, using the syntax from the latest C++ working paper:

template class A<int>;
template ostream& operator << (ostream&, const A<int>&);
@end example

This strategy will work with code written for either model. If you are
using code written for the Cfront model, the file containing a class
template and the file containing its member templates should be
implemented in the same translation unit.

A slight variation on this approach is to instead use the flag
@samp{-falt-external-templates}; this flag causes template
instances to be emitted in the translation unit that implements the
header where they are first instantiated, rather than the one which
implements the file where the templates are defined. This header must
be the same in all translation units, or things are likely to break.

@xref{C++ Interface,,Declarations and Definitions in One Header}, for
more discussion of these pragmas.
@end enumerate

Chip Salzenberg - a.k.a. - <chip@valinux.com>
"I wanted to play hopscotch with the impenetrable mystery of existence,
but he stepped in a wormhole and had to go in early." // MST3K

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